Troubles of Middle Earth - Documentation

=== List of Commands ===

    Angband commands are entered as an "underlying command" (a single key)
plus a variety of optional or required arguments.  You may choose how the
"keyboard keys" are mapped to the "underlying commands" by choosing one of
two standard "keysets", the "original" keyset or the "roguelike" keyset.

    The original keyset is very similar to the "underlying" command set,
with a few additions (such as the ability to use the numeric "directions" to
"walk" or the "5" key to "stay still").  The roguelike keyset provides similar
additions, and also allows the use of the h/j/k/l/y/u/b/n keys to "walk" (or,
in combination with the shift or control keys, to run or tunnel), which thus
requires a variety of key mappings to allow access to the underlying commands
used for walking/running/tunneling.  In particular, the "roguelike" keyset
includes many more "capital" and "control" keys, as shown below.

    Note that any keys that are not required for access to the underlying
command set may be used by the user as "command macro" triggers (see below).
You may always specify any "underlying command" directly by pressing backslash
("\") plus the "underlying command" key.  This is normally only used in "macro"
definitions.  You may often enter "control-keys" as a caret ("^") plus the key
(so "^" + "p" often yields "^P").

    Some commands allow an optional "repeat count", which allows you to tell
the game that you wish to do the command multiple times, unless you press a
key or are otherwise disturbed.  To enter a "repeat count", type '0', followed
by the numerical count, followed by the command.  You must type "space" before
entering certain commands.  Skipping the numerical count yields a count of 99.
An option allows certain commands (open, disarm, tunnel, etc) to auto-repeat.

    Some commands will prompt for extra information, such as a direction, an
inventory or equipment item, a spell, a textual inscription, the symbol of a
monster race, a sub-command, a verification, an amount of time, a quantity,
a file name, or various other things.  Normally you can hit return to choose
the "default" response, or escape to cancel the command entirely.

    Some commands will prompt for a spell or an inventory item.  Pressing
space (or '*') will give you a list of choices.  Pressing "-" (minus) selects
the item on the floor.  Pressing a lowercase letter selects the given item.
Pressing a capital letter selects the given item after verification.  Pressing
a numeric digit '#' selects the first item (if any) whose inscription contains
"@#" or "@x#", where "x" is the current "underlying command".  You may only
specify items which are "legal" for the command.  Whenever an item inscription
contains "!*" or "!x" (with "x" as above) you must verify its selection.

    In ToME, there are items which occasionally teleport you away, asking
for permission first. The recurring "Teleport (y/n)?" can be annoying, and
this behavior can be eliminated by inscribing the object which causes the
teleportation with "." (or any inscription containing the character ".").
With this inscription, the object will no longer teleport you around nor
keep asking you. If you want to restore the teleport ability to the object,
just remove the "." from its inscription. Note that cursed items which
teleport you are unaffected by the inscription.

    Some commands will prompt for a direction.  You may enter a "compass"
direction using any of the "direction keys" shown below.  Sometimes, you may
specify that you wish to use the current "target", by pressing "t" or "5", or
that you wish to select a new target, by pressing "*" (see "Target" below).
        Original Keyset Directions       Roguelike Keyset Directions

                 7  8  9                           y  k  u
                 4     6                           h     l
                 1  2  3                           b  j  n

    Each of the standard keysets provides some short-cuts over the "underlying
commands".  For example, both keysets allow you to "walk" by simply pressing
an "original" direction key (or a "roguelike" direction key if you are using
the roguelike keyset), instead of using the "walk" command plus a direction.
The roguelike keyset allows you to "run" or "tunnel" by simply holding the
shift or control modifier key down while pressing a "roguelike" direction key,
instead of using the "run" or "tunnel" command plus a direction.  Both keysets
allow the use of the "5" key to "stand still", which is most convenient when
using the original keyset.

    Note that on many systems, it is possible to define "macros" (or "command
macros") to various keys, or key combinations, so that it is often possible to
make macros which, for example, allow the use of the shift or control modifier
keys, plus a numeric keypad key, to specify the "run" or "tunnel" command, with
the given direction, regardless of any keymap definitions, by using the fact
that you can always, for example, use "\" + "." + "6", to specify "run east".
=== Original Keyset Command Summary (4.2.x) ===

 a  Aim a wand                           A  Activate an artifact
 b  Browse a book                        B  Bash a door
 c  Close a door                         C  Character description
 d  Drop an item                         D  Disarm a trap
 e  Equipment list                       E  Eat some food
 f  Fire an item                         F  Fuel your lantern/torch
 g  Stay still (flip pickup)             G  Gain new skills
 h  Hack up a corpse                     H  Drink from a fountain
 i  Inventory list                       I  Observe an item
 j  Jam a door                           J  (unused)
 k  Destroy an item                      K  Cure meat
 l  Look around                          L  Locate player on map
 m  Cast a spell / use mental power      M  Full dungeon map
 n  (unused)                             N  Abilities Screen  (unused)
 o  Open a door or chest                 O  Sacrifice at an altar
 p  Pray to your god (if any)            P  Pet commands
 q  Quaff a potion                       Q  Quit (commit suicide)
 r  Read a scroll                        R  Rest for a period
 s  Search for traps/doors               S  Toggle search mode
 t  Take off equipment                   T  Dig a tunnel
 u  Use a staff                          U  Use bonus power (if any)
 v  Throw an item                        V  Version Info
 w  Wear/wield equipment                 W  (unused)
 x  Engrave the floor                    X  (unused)
 y  Give item to monster                 Y  Chat
 z  Zap a rod                            Z  Steal
 !  Interact with system                ^A  (special - debug command)
 @  Interact with macros                ^B  (unused)
 #  (unused)                            ^C  (special - break)
 $  Record macros                       ^D  (unused)
 %  Interact with visuals               ^E  Toggle choice window
 ^  (special - control key)             ^F  Repeat level feeling
 &  Interact with colors                ^G  (unused)
 *  Target monster or location          ^H  (unused)
 (  (unused)                            ^I  (special - tab)
 )  (unused)                            ^J  (special - linefeed)
 {  Inscribe an object                  ^K  (unused)
 }  Uninscribe an object                ^L  (unused)
 [  (unused)                            ^M  (special - return)
 ]  (unused)                            ^N  (unused)
 -  Walk (flip pickup)                  ^O  (unused)
 _  Enter store                         ^P  Show previous messages
 +  Alter grid                          ^Q  Quit to next midi song
 =  Set options                         ^R  Redraw the screen
 ;  Walk (with pickup)                  ^S  Save and don't quit
 :  Take notes                          ^T  Time of the day
 '  (unused)                            ^U  (unused)
 "  Enter a user pref command           ^V  (unused)
 ,  Stay still (with pickup)            ^W  (special - wizard mode)
 <  Go up staircase                     ^X  Save and quit
 .  Run                                 ^Y  (unused)
 >  Go down staircase                   ^Z  (special - borg command)
   (special - bypass keymap)            |  Do cmovies
 `  (special - escape)                   ~  Display current knowledge
 /  Identify symbol                      ?  Help
                                        ^]  Take an html screenshot

===  Roguelike Keyset Command Summary (4.2.x) ===

 a  Zap a rod (Activate)                 A  Activate an artifact
 b  (walk - south west)                  B  (run - south west)
 c  Close a door                         C  Character description
 d  Drop an item                         D  Disarm a trap or chest
 e  Equipment list                       E  Eat some food
 f  Bash a door (force)                  F  Fuel your lantern/torch
 g  Stay still (flip pickup)             G  Gain new skills
 h  (walk - west)                        H  (run - west)
 i  Inventory list                       I  Observe an item
 j  (walk - south)                       J  (run - south)
 k  (walk - north)                       K  (run - north)
 l  (walk - east)                        L  (run - east)
 m  Spell casting / mental power         M  Full dungeon map
 n  (walk - south east)                  N  (run - south east)
 o  Open a door or chest                 O  Use bonus power (if any)
 p  Pray to your god (if any)            P  Browse a book
 q  Quaff a potion                       Q  Quit (commit suicide)
 r  Read a scroll                        R  Rest for a period
 s  Search for traps/doors               S  Record macros
 t  Fire an item                         T  Take off equipment
 u  (walk - north east)                  U  (run - north east)
 v  Throw an item                        V  Drink from a fountain
 w  Wear/wield equipment                 W  Locate player on map (Where)
 x  Look around                          X  Pet commands
 y  (walk - north west)                  Y  (run - north west)
 z  Aim a wand (Zap)                     Z  Use a staff (Zap)
 !  Interact with system                ^A  (special - debug command)
 @  Interact with macros                ^B  (tunnel - south west)
 #  Toggle search mode                  ^C  (special - break)
 $  Hack up a corpse                    ^D  Destroy item
 %  Interact with visuals               ^E  Toggle choice window
 ^  (special - control key)             ^F  Repeat level feeling
 &  Interact with colors                ^G  Sacrifice at an altar
 *  Target monster or location          ^H  (tunnel - west)
 (  Chat                                ^I  (special - tab)
 )  (unused)                            ^J  (tunnel - south)
 {  Inscribe an object                  ^K  (tunnel - north)
 }  Uninscribe an object                ^L  (tunnel - east)
 [  Steal                               ^M  (tunnel - south)
 ]  Engrave the floor                   ^N  (tunnel - south east)
 -  Walk (flip pickup)                  ^O  Cure meat
 _  Enter store                         ^P  Show previous messages
 +  Alter grid                          ^Q  Quit to next midi song
 =  Set options                         ^R  Redraw the screen
 ;  Walk (with pickup)                  ^S  Save and don't quit
 :  Take notes                          ^T  Dig a Tunnel
 '  Give object to monster              ^U  (tunnel - north east)
 "  Enter a user pref command           ^V  (unused)
 ,  Run                                 ^W  (special - wizard mode)
 <  Go up staircase                     ^X  Save and quit
 .  Stay still (with pickup)            ^Y  (tunnel - north west)
 >  Go down staircase                   ^Z  (special - borg command)
   (special - bypass keymap)            |  Do cmovies
 `  (special - escape)                   ~  Display current knowledge
 /  Identify symbol                      ?  Help

=== Special Keys ===
        Certain special keys may be intercepted by the operating system or
the host machine, causing unexpected results.  In general, these special keys
are control keys, and often, you can disable their special effects.

        If you are playing on a UNIX or similar system, then Ctrl-C will
interrupt Angband.  The second and third interrupt will induce a warning
bell, and the fourth will induce both a warning bell and a special message,
since the fifth will quit the game, after killing your character.  Also,
Ctrl-Z will suspend the game, and return you to the original command shell,
until you resume the game with the "fg" command.  There is now a compilation
option to force the game to prevent the "double ctrl-z escape death trick".
The Ctrl-\ and Ctrl-D and Ctrl-S keys should not be intercepted.
        It is often possible to specify "control-keys" without actually
pressing the control key, by typing a caret ("^") followed by the key.
This is useful for specifying control-key commands which might be caught
by the operating system as explained above.
        Pressing backslash ("") before a command will bypass all keymaps,
and the next keypress will be interpreted as an "underlying command" key,
unless it is a caret ("^"), in which case the keypress after that will be
turned into a control-key and interpreted as a command in the underlying
angband keyset.  The backslash key is useful for creating macro actions
which are not affected by any keymap definitions that may be in force, for
example, the sequence "\" + "." + "6" will always mean "run east", even if
the "." key has been mapped to a different underlying command.

        The "0" and "^" and "\" keys all have special meaning when entered
at the command prompt, and there is no "useful" way to specify any of them
as an "underlying command", which is okay, since they would have no effect.
        For many input requests or queries, the special character ESCAPE
will abort the command.  The "[y/n]" prompts may be answered with "y" or
"n", or escape.  The "-more-" message prompts may be cleared (after reading
the displayed message) by pressing ESCAPE, SPACE, RETURN, LINEFEED, or by
any keypress, if the "quick_messages" option is turned on.
===  Command Counts ===
        Some commands can be executed a fixed number of times by preceding
them with a count.  Counted commands will execute until the count expires,
until you type any character, or until something significant happens, such
as being attacked.  Thus, a counted command doesn't work to attack another
creature.  While the command is being repeated, the number of times left
to be repeated will flash by on the line at the bottom of the screen.

        To give a count to a command, type 0, the repeat count, and then
the command. If you want to give a movement command and you are using the
original command set (where the movement commands are digits), press space
after the count and you will be prompted for the command.
        Counted commands are very useful for searching or tunneling, as
they automatically terminate on success, or if you are attacked.  You may
also terminate any counted command (or resting or running), by typing any
character.  This character is ignored, but it is safest to use a SPACE or
ESCAPE which are always ignored as commands in case you type the command
just after the count expires.

        You can tell Angband to automatically use a repeat count of 99
with commands you normally want to repeat (open, disarm, tunnel, bash,
alter, etc) by setting the "always_repeat" option.
===  Selection of Objects ===
        Many commands will also prompt for a particular object to be used.
For example, the command to read a scroll will ask you which of the
scrolls that you are carrying that you wish to read.  In such cases, the
selection is made by typing a letter of the alphabet.  The prompt will
indicate the possible letters, and will also allow you to type the key
"*", which causes all of the available options to be described.  The list
of choices will also be shown in the Choice window, if you are using a
windows environment and windows are turned on.  Often you will be able to
press "/" to select an object from your equipment instead of your
inventory.  Pressing space once will have the same effect as "*", and
the second time will cancel the command and run the "i" or "e" command.
        The particular object may be selected by an upper case or a lower
case letter.  If lower case is used, the selection takes place
immediately.  If upper case is used, then the particular option is
described, and you are given the option of confirming or retracting that
choice.  Upper case selection is thus safer, but requires an extra key
stroke.  Also see the "!*" and "!x" inscriptions, below.

        For many commands, you can also use "-" to select an object on the
floor where you are standing.  This lets you read scrolls or quaff
potions, for example, off the dungeon floor without picking them up.
        If you enter a number between 0 and 9, the first item engraved
with "@#" where "#" is the number you entered will be selected.  For example,
if you have a shovel engraved with "@0" and you type "w" (for wield) and
then 0, you will wield the shovel.  This is very useful for macros (see
below), since you can use this to select an object regardless of its
location in your pack. Multiple numbers can be engraved on the same object; for
example, if a sword is engraved with @1@0, then either "w1" or "w0" will
wield it.  Normally, you inscribe "@1@0" on your primary weapon, and
"@2@0" on your secondary weapon.  Note that an inscription containing
"@x#" will act like "@#" but only when the current "Angband command"
is "x".  Thus you can put "@z4" on a rod and "@u4" on a staff, and then 
use both "z4" and "u4" as desired.

        Note that any object containing "!x" in its inscription, where
"x" is the current "angband command" (or containing "!*" ever) will induce
"verification" whenever that object is "selected".  Thus, inscribing, say,
"!f!k!d" on an object will greatly reduce the odds of you "losing" it by
accident, and inscribing "!*" on an object will allow you to be very paranoid
about the object.  Note that "selling" and "dropping" both use the "d" command.

=== User Pref Files ===

        Angband allows you to change various aspects of the game to suit
your tastes.  You may define keymaps (changing the way Angband maps your
keypresses to underlying commands), create macros (allowing you to map a
single keypress to a series of keypresses), modify the visuals (allowing
you to change the appearance of monsters, objects, or terrain features),
change the colors (allowing you to make a given color brighter, darker,
or even completely different), or set options (turning them off or on).

        Angband stores your preferences in files called "user pref files",
which contain comments and "user pref commands", which are simple strings
describing one aspect of the system about which the user has a preference.
There are many ways to load a user pref file, and in fact, some of these
files are automatically loaded for you by the game.  All of the files are
kept in the "lib/user/" directory, though you may have to use one of the
command line arguments to redirect this directory, especially on multiuser
systems.  You may also enter single user pref commands directly, using the
special "Enter a user pref command" command, activated by "double quote".
You may have to use the "redraw" command (^R) after changing certain of
the aspects of the game, to allow Angband to adapt to your changes.

        When the game starts up, after you have loaded an old character,
or created a new character, some user pref files are loaded automatically.
First, the "pref.prf" file is loaded.  This file contains some user pref
commands which will work on all platforms.  Then one of "font-xxx.prf"
(for normal usage) or "graf-xxx.prf" (for bitmap usage) is loaded.  These
files contain attr/char changes to allow the monsters, objects, and/or
terrain features to look "better" on your system.  Then the "pref-xxx.prf"
file is loaded.  This file contains pre-defined system specific stuff
(macros, color definitions, etc).  Then, the "user-xxx.prf" file is loaded.
This file contains user-defined system specific stuff.  The "user-xxx.prf"
file is used as the "default" user pref file in many places.  The "xxx" is
the "system suffix" for your system, taken from the "main-xxx.c" file which
was used to generate your executable.  Finally, the "Race.prf", "Class.prf",
and "Name.prf" files are loaded, where "Race", "Class", and "Name" are
replaced by the actual race, class, and name of the current character.

        Several commands allow you to both load existing user pref files,
create new user pref files, append information to existing user pref files,
and/or interact with various of the user preferences in a more intuitive
way than the user pref commands allow.  The commands include "Interact with
macros" (@), "Interact with visuals" (%), and "Interact with colors" (&),
described below.
--- User Pref Files (Macros) ---

        The "Interact with macros" command allows you to define or remove
"macros", which are mappings from a single logical keypress to a sequence
of keypresses, allowing you to use special keys on the keyboard, such as
function keys or keypad keys, possibly in conjunction with modifier keys,
to "automate" repetitive multi-keypress commands that you use a lot.

        Since macros represent keypress sequences, and not all keypresses
have a printable representation, macro triggers and actions must often be
"encoded" into a human readable form.  This is done using several types
of encoding, including "\xHH" for character number HH in hexidecimal, "\e"
for the "escape" code, "\n" for the "newline" code, "\r" for the "return"
code, "\s" for the "space" code, "\\" for backslash, "\^" for caret, and
"^X" for the code for any "control" key "ctrl-X".  Note that the "action"
of a macro will not be checked against other macro triggers (unless the
macro action contains a "control-backslash"), so you cannot make infinite
loops.  You may specify extremely long macros, but you are limited in
length by the underlying input mechanisms, which in general limit you
to about 1024 keys in both triggers and actions.

        The special "\" command (which must be encoded in macros as "\\")
is very useful in macros, since it bypasses all keymaps and allows the next
keystroke to be considered a command in the underlying Angband command set.
For example, a macro which maps Shift-KP6 to "\" + "." + "6" will induce
the "run east" behavior, regardless of what keyset the user has chosen, and
regardless of what keymaps have been defined.

        Macros can be specified in user pref files as a pair of lines, one
of the form "A:", which defines the encoded macro action, and one of
the form "P:", which defines the encoded macro trigger.

      A common example of a macro to cast the first spell in your first spell
book at the nearest monster would be: \e\e\em1a*t where \e is an escape (to make
sure you are not still within another command), m1 selects the spell book that 
is inscribed ({) with @m1, a selects the first spell in that book, and *t targets
the nearest monster. 

      More detailed information about specific macros can be found in
macrofaq.txt, originally written by Jim Lyon (,
modified for ToME with Jim's permission by Dawnmist 
--- User Pref Files (Keymaps) ---

        The "Interact with macros" command also allows you to define
"keymaps", which are vaguely related to macros.  A keymap maps a single
keypress to a series of keypresses, which bypass both other keymaps and
any macros.  Angband uses keymaps to map the original and the roguelike
keysets to the underlying command set, and allows the user to modify or
add keymaps of their own.  Note that all keymap actions must be specified
using underlying commands, not keypresses from the original or roguelike
keysets.  The original keyset is almost identical to the underlying keyset,
except that "numbers" are mapped to ";" plus a direction, "5" is mapped to
",", and a few control-keys are mapped to various things.  See "command.txt"
for the full set of underlying commands.  Some uses for keymaps include the
ability to "disable" a command by mapping it to "\x00", 

 Keymaps can be specified in user pref files as line of the form
"M:  ", where  is the keyset (0/1 for original/roguelike),
 is the encoded trigger key, and  is the encoded keymap action.
--- User Pref Files (Visuals) ---

        You can use the "Interact with visuals" command to change various
visual information, currently including the choice of what attr/char values
are used to represent various monsters, objects, or terrain features.  Note
that in combination appropriate support in "main-xxx.c", and with the use of
the "use_graphics" flag, you may be able to specify that "graphic bitmaps"
should be used instead of normal "colored characters" for various things.

        When interactively modifying the attr/char values for monsters,
objects, or terrain features, pressing "n" or "N" will change which entry
you are changing, pressing "a" or "A" will rotate through the available
attr values, and pressing "c" or "C" will rotate though the available char
values.  Note that attr/char values with the "high bit" set may induce the
display of special "graphic" pictures if the "use_graphics" flag is set,
and your system supports the "use_graphics" flag.

        Note that this command can be abused in various ways, and if you
must do so, remember that you are only cheating yourself.

 Keymaps can be specified in user pref files as line of the form
"R::/" or "K::/" or "F::/" or "U::/".
--- User Pref Files (Colors) ---

        The "Interact with colors" command allows you to change the actual
internal values used to display various colors.  This command may or may
not have any effect on your machine.  Advanced machines may allow you to
change the actual RGB values used to represent each of the 16 colors used
by Angband, and perhaps even allow you to define new colors which are not
currently used by Angband.

 Colors can be specified in user pref files as line of the form
--- User Pref Files (Options) ---

        The "Interact with options" command allows you to turn options
on or off.  You may turn options off or on using the user pref commands
of the form "X:
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